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FRP tanks and vessels designed as per BS 4994 are widely used in the chemical industry in the following sectors: chlor-alkali manufacturers, fertilizer, wood pulp and paper, metal extraction, refining, electroplating, brine, vinegar, food processing, and in air pollution control equipment, especially at municipal waste water treatment plants and water treatment plants.
FRP Vessels and Tanks are used in multiple applications, requiring a strong, corrosion resistant environment.
FRP Scrubbers are used for scrubbing fluids. In air pollution control technology, scrubbers come in three varieties, Dry Media, Wet Media, and Biological.
Dry media typically involved a dry, solid media ( such as activated carbon) suspended in the middle of the vessel on a system of beam supports and grating. The media controls the concentration of a pollutant in the incoming gas via adsorption and absorption.
These vessels have several design constraints. They must be designed for
Unloading and Reloading the media
Corrosive effects of the fluid to be treated
Internal and External Pressure
Support Loads for the grating and support system
Lifting and Installing the Vessel
Regenerating the media inside the vessel
Internal Stack supports for a dual bed construction
Redundancy for preventative maintenance
Demisting to remove liquids that degrade the dry media
Condensate removal, to remove any liquid that condenses inside the vessel
Wet media scrubbers typically douse the polluted fluid in a scrubbing solution. These vessels must be designed to more stringent criteria. The design constraints for wet media scrubbers typically include:
The corrosive effects of the polluted fluid and the scrubbing solution.
The high pressures and loading of a spray system
Aerodynamics of the internal media to ensure that there is no bypass
Internal Support systems
Reservoir of scrubbing fluid for recirculation.
Internal and External Pressure
Lifting and Installing the vessel
Plumbing of the scrubbing fluid to the vessel
Draining to remove vessel sump fluids
In the case of a decarbonator, used in reverse osmosis systems to limit the concentration of gases in the water, the air is the scrubbing fluid and the sprayed liquid is the polluted stream. As the water is sprayed out of the scrubber, the air strips the aqueous gasses out of the water, to be treated in another vessel.
Biological scrubbers are structurally identical to the wet media scrubbers, but vary in their design. The vessel is designed to be larger, so the air moves slower through the vessel. The media is designed to encourage biological growth, and the water that sprays through the vessel is filled with nutrients to encourage bacteria to grow. In such scrubbers, the bacteria scrub the pollutant. Also, instead of a single, large support system ( typically 10 feet depth of media for chemical scrubbers) , there are multiple stages of media support, that can change the design requirements of the vessel. ( See biofilter for similar technology that is usually performed outside of an FRP vessel.)
A typical storage tank made of FRP has an inlet, an outlet, a vent, an access port, a drain, and an overflow nozzle. However, there are other features that can be included in the tank. Ladders on the outside allow for easy access to the roof for loading. The vessel must be designed to withstand the load of someone standing on these ladders, and even withstand a person standing on the roof. Sloped bottoms allow for easier draining. Level gauges allow someone to accurately read the liquid level in the tank. The vessel must be resistant to the corrosive nature of the fluid it contains. Typically, these vessels have a secondary containment structure, in case the vessel bursts.
The size of FRP Vessels is rarely limited by manufacturing technology, but rather by economics. Tanks smaller than 7, 500 liters ( 2, 000 gallons) are easily manufactured out of cheaper materials, such as HDPE or PVC. Tanks larger than four meters are generally limited by shipping constraints, and the economics suggest a concrete or steel tank fabricated at the tank' s location.
For chemical storage and air pollution control, the choice is to make multiple tanks of smaller diameters. For example, one of the largest odor control projects in California, the Orange County Sanitation District will utilize 24[ 2] vessels total to treat 188, 300 cfm ( 86, 200 L/ s) of odorous air, with a design of up to 50 ppm of hydrogen sulfide.[ 3] For an equivalent single vessel to perform as well as the 13 headworks trickling filters, the single vessel would have to be over 36 feet in diameter.[ 4] This would be impractical due to the high shipping requirements, internal supports, spray nozzles and other internals. Plus this single vessel would not incorporate redundancy for preventive maintenance.
Typical FRP temperature limits are almost entirely based on the resin. The thermoplastic resin will suffer from creep at elevated temperatures and ultimately fail. However, new chemistry has produced resins that claim to be able to achieve even higher temperatures, which expand this field immensely. The typical maximum is 110 degrees celsius.
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